What is a cluster?

Michael Porter, a Harvard University Professor, offers the following definition of cluster:

Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries, and associated institutions (e.g., universities, standards agencies, trade associations) in a particular field that compete but also co-operate.

A classical cluster is the one where companies of various sectors, whose activities are focused on specific value chains, intertwine.

The fields to which cluster participants direct their activities:

  • Information and communications
  • Co-operation
  • Training and qualification improvement
  • Innovations and technologies
  • Common pricing policy
  • International development and partnership with other clusters
  • Lobbyism